batterie e caricabatterie
Types of batteries
Batteries can be sorted into 3 categories: lithium-ion battery, alkaline battery and nickel–metal hydride battery.
Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy densities, no memory effect, and only a slow loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. Research is yielding a stream of improvements to traditional LIB technology, focusing on energy density, durability, cost, and intrinsic safety.
Alkaline batteries are a type of primary batteries dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide(Zn/MnO2). A rechargeable alkaline battery allows reuse of specially designed cells. The alkaline battery gets its name because it has an alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide, instead of the acidic ammonium chloride or zinc chloride electrolyte of the zinc-carbon batteries. Other battery systems also use alkaline electrolytes, but they use different active materials for the electrodes.
Nickel–metal hydride batteries
A nickel–metal hydride cell, abbreviated NiMH or Ni-MH, is a type of rechargeable battery. It is very similar to the nickel–cadmium cell (Ni-Cd). NiMH use positive electrodes of nickel oxyhydroxide (Ni-OOH), like the Ni-Cd, but the negative electrode uses a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. A NiMH battery can have two to three times the capacity of an equivalent size Ni-Cd, and their energy density approaches that of a lithium-ion cell.
NiMH batteries have replaced Ni-Cd for many roles, notably small rechargeable batteries. NiMH batteries are very common for AA (penlight-size) batteries, which have nominal charge capacities (C) ranging from 1100 mAh to 3100 mAh at 1.2 V, measured at the rate that discharges the cell in five hours.
About 22% of portable rechargeable batteries sold in Japan in 2010 were Ni-MH. In Switzerland in 2009, the equivalent statistic was approximately 60%. This percentage has fallen over time due to the increase in manufacture of Li-ion batteries.
One significant disadvantage of NiMH batteries is a high rate of self-discharge; a Ni-HM battery will lose as much as 3% of its charge per week of storage. In 2005 a low self-discharge NiMH battery (LSD) was developed. LSD Ni-MH batteries significantly lower self-discharge, but at the cost of lowering capacity by about 20%.
Types of batteries
Notes about battery
All rechargeable battery’s voltage are 3.7V-4.2V. If batteries are series-connected, the total voltage should be added up. If batteries are paralleled-connected, the total voltage remains 3.7V-4.2V. (Note: TM11 employs 4 18650 batteries and its total voltage is 4.2V. If employs 8 CR123 batteries, the total voltage will be 6 V. (Due to design limitations, TM11 can’t use RCR123 battery.)
All non-rechargeable batteries’ voltage are 3V.
Alkaline batteries’ voltage are1.5V，Ni-MH batteries’ are 1.2V.
Flashlight‘s brightness is subject to battery voltage.
Battery Type conversion: AA = 14500，CR123A = 16340，CR123A*2 = 18650
(Note: Our lights do not support 14500 Li-ion battery types)
LITHIUM BATTERY WARNINGS:
DO NOT puncture, cut, crush, short circuit, recharge, expose to water, fire, or high temperature–fire or explosion may result
DO NOT place loose batteries in a pocket, purse, or other receptacle containing metal objects
DO NOT mix with used or other battery types
DO NOT store with hazardous or combustible materials
DO NOT use water to put out a burning lithium battery — use a class “D” fire extinguisher or other smothering agent
DO NOT mix disposable and rechargeable batteries in your illumination tool
DO NOT put batteries into a device backwards
DO NOT allow children access to lithium batteries
DO store lithium batteries in a cool, dry, ventilated area
Follow applicable laws and regulations for transport, shipping, and disposal. For more details on recycling lithium batteries please contact a government recycling agency, your waste disposal service, the retailer where the batteries were purchased, or visit reputable online recycling sources, such as http://www.batteryrecycling.com/. Failure to follow these directions could result in damage to your illumination tool that may not be covered by Nitecore’s warranty.
CAMERA or “PHOTO” BATTERY WARNING
DO NOT use any batteries advertised or promoted specifically for use in cameras, for photography, or for other low-drain purposes. Use only batteries labeled as safe to use in high-performance, high-drain devices, and which contain built-in fault and heat protection for added safety. The use of photographic-type batteries can constitute a safety hazard, including risk of fire or explosion, and may void your warranty.
COUNTERFEIT AND INFERIOR-QUALITY BATTERY WARNING
There have been many reported incidents in which counterfeit and /or inferior-quality lithium batteries developed internal shorts that have led to fire and/or explosion. This has resulted in damage to the illumination tool, and in some cases, property damage or personal injury. Customers are specifically cautioned from purchasing batteries from online auction websites, as these are known sources of counterfeit or inferior-quality batteries.
Nitecore performance claims are based on the use of Nitecore 123A lithium batteries only. Nitecore 123A lithium batteries are manufactured to strict quality standards specifically for use in high-performance, high-drain devices, and contain built-in fault and heat protection for added safety. The use of counterfeit or inferior-quality batteries could greatly reduce runtime and output performance, damage your illumination tool, constitute a safety hazard, and may void your warranty.
Li-ion vs Alkaline batteries
Li-ion batteries are preferred over alkaline AA batteries because of several reasons:
Higher Power Density
For a given size (battery volume), It would take two alkaline batteries to match the power output of a single 123A lithium battery.
For a given size (battery volume), Lithium batteries weigh about half as much as alkalines but produce more power.
123A batteries generate 3 volts. Alkalines, just 1.5 volts.
Better Voltage Maintenance
A lithium battery maintains fairly constant voltage for up to 95% of its life, depending on discharge rate. At moderate to high discharge rates, the voltage of alkaline batteries drops rapidly, making them unsuitable for use in high-output flashlights.
Lithium batteries can retain up to 90% of their original power output capability after 10 years of storage, making them perfect for emergency preparedness use. Stored alkalines deplete themselves much more rapidly.
Wide Temperature Tolerance
Lithium batteries greatly outperform alkalines over a wide temperature range, providing a working output from -76º to 176º F (-60º to 80º C).